Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Transmission is the process of passing a disease  or a disease causing pathogen from an infected host individual or a group of infected people to a particular individual or a group of persons regardless whether they are previously infected or not. Prevention is the application of scientific methodologies in order to prevent or moderate major human dysfunctions before they occur. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has introduced different strategies for reducing the STD risk which include: vaccination, mutual monogamy, reducing the number of sexual partners and abstinence. The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs, HIV / AIDS is to avoid the contact of body parts or fluids which can lead to transfer with an infected partner.

 

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were identified, the number of children infected with HIV has risen dramatically in developing countries, the result of an increased number of HIV-infected women of childbearing age in these areas. HIV is a retrovirus and can be transmitted vertically, sexually, or via contaminated blood products or IV drug abuse. Vertical HIV infection occurs before birth, during delivery, or after birth.

 

Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B cells of the white blood cells and antigens during immune reaction. The antigens and antibodies combine by a process called agglutination. It is the fundamental reaction in the body by which the body is protected from complex foreign molecules, such as pathogens and their chemical toxins. In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. The immune complex is then transported to cellular systems where it can be destroyed or deactivated.

 

Reproductive tract infection (RTI) are infections that affect the reproductive tract, which is part of the Reproductive System. For females, reproductive tract infections can affect the upper reproductive tract (fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus) and the lower reproductive tract (vagina, cervix and vulva); for males these infections affect the penis, testicles, urethra or the vas deferens. The three types of reproductive tract infections are endogenous infections, iatrogenic infections and the more commonly known sexually transmitted infections. Each has its own specific causes and symptoms, caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus or other organism. Some infections are easily treatable and can be cured, some are more difficult, and some are non curable such as AIDS and herpes

 

Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobactericidal. Over 190 species are recognized in this genus. This genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) in humans. The Greek prefix myco- means "fungus," alluding to the way mycobacteria have been observed to grow in a mold-like fashion on the surface of cultures. It is acid fast and cannot be stained by the Gram stain procedure.

 

The social issues associated with HIV and sexually transmitted diseases can be understood in two ways. Firstly, they social impact might refer to the social determinants of the pandemic and secondly, they relate to the social impact of the pandemic. Ethical questions present some of the most vexing problems associated with HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases. Ethics cannot be considered in a vacuum. The social context dictates how the principles of ethics are applied and interpreted.

 

STD’s clinical research help scientists find improved ways to prevent, detect, or treat HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. All the medications used to treat HIV/AIDS in the United States were first studied in clinical trials. HIV/AIDS clinical studies under way include studies of new medicines to inhibit or treat HIV, studies of vaccines to prevent or treat HIV, studies of medicines to treat infections correlated to HIV. Case report is the detailed information of the individual patient containing the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, and treatment and follows up of the patient. It is a demographic profile that usually describes an unusual or novel occurrence.

 

Co-infections are the simultaneous infections of a host by multiple pathogen species. There are different co-infections that are associated with STD especially with HIV which leads to lethal condition and worsens the condition of the individual. Co-infection is of particular human health importance because these pathogen species can interact within the host. The net effect of the co-infection on human health is thought to be negative but these Interactions can have either positive or negative effects on other parasites. Under positive parasite interactions, disease transmission and progression are enhanced which is also known as synergism and in negative parasite interactions include microbial interference when one bacterial species suppresses the virulence or colonisation of other bacteria.

Co-infections are the simultaneous infections of a host by multiple pathogen species. There are different co-infections that are associated with STD especially with HIV which leads to lethal condition and worsens the condition of the individual. Co-infection is of particular human health importance because these pathogen species can interact within the host. The net effect of the co-infection on human health is thought to be negative but these Interactions can have either positive or negative effects on other parasites. Under positive parasite interactions, disease transmission and progression are enhanced which is also known as synergism and in negative parasite interactions include microbial interference when one bacterial species suppresses the virulence or colonisation of other bacteria.

Health system or health care systems is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. There are a lot of health care systems with many histories and organizational structures of the nations which are designed based on their needs and resources constrained to that nation. Besides there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, charities, religious organizations, or other coordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. Health services is a multidisciplinary scientific field that examines the how people get access to the health care practitioners, health care services, costs, and what happens to the patients as a result of this care.

 

AMR is said to be the ability of a microbe to withstand the effects of medication that once might successfully treat the microbe. The word antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a detachment of AMR, as it relates only to the bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are more problematic to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses of antimicrobials. These methodologies may be more expensive, higher toxicity risk or both. Microbes resistant to numerous antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR). The classes of drug resistance are extensively drug- resistant (XDR) and totally drug- resistant (TDR).

 

 

One of the commonly seen bacterial infections is tuberculosis with the utmost risk factor, affected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which kills about 1.5 to2 million people a year, frequently in sub-Saharan Africa. Pathogenic bacteria subsidize to other globally important diseases, which include pneumonia and foodborne illnesses. Pathogenic bacteria can also be the reason for the infections like tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, and leprosy. Pathogenic bacteria are also the reason of high infant mortality rates in developing countries. 

 

In commonly spreading infectious diseases are more frequent and serious in patients with diabetes mellitus, which naturally increases their morbimortality. The superior incidence of infections in diabetic patients is caused by the hyperglycaemic environment that favour’s immune dysfunction, micro- and macro-angiopathies, neuropathy negotiate the antibacterial activity of urine, gastrointestinal and urinary dysmotility, and increase the chances of medical complications in these patients.

 

By the development of metabolic and infection imaging it has been  routine process, as it shows the accurate and most valuable information of the infection site, type and resistance, which interne helps in treating efficiently, with the known cause and specificity. But in direct identification of infection in the body without any externally observed abnormality. But by using the cross sectional imaging technique and imaging the sedimentation of radioisotopes that have been settled into white blood cells or glucose. Biologic imaging is useful in discovering the anatomic sites where there is inflammation or high metabolic demand. However, a drawback of biologic imaging is that it is not specific for infection.

 

 Health monitoring is the way of checking if the health of the particular individual is being harmed from exposure to various disease causing micro-organisms which aims to detect early signs of ill health or disease. The health monitoring includes numerous tests for determining the health of an individual. You can use the health monitor to create a collection of tests, referred to as a health policy, and apply the health policy to one or more appliances. HIV testing refers to shows whether a person has HIV or not. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that everyone between the 13 to 64 years old get tested for HIV at least once and that people at high risk of infection get tested more often.

 

Public health is the science of defensive and educating the health of people and their communities. This work is attained by promoting healthy lifestyles, researching disease and injury prevention, and detecting, preventing and responding to infectious diseases. Public health professionals try to avoid problems from happening or recurring through executing educational programs, recommending policies, managing services and conducting research—in contrast to medical professionals like doctors and nurses, who focus mainly on treating individuals after they become sick or injured. Public health also works to limit health differences.

 

An emerging infectious disease (EID) is a contagious disease whose occurrence has boosted in the last 50 years and chances are there that it could increase in the coming future. Emerging infections account for at least 15% of all human pathogens. EIDs are caused by freshly identified strains that may have emerged from a known infection or transferred to a new community or to a field undergoing conserves metamorphosis, or remerging infections. Of thriving concern are adverse synergistic communication between emerging diseases and other infectious and non-infectious conditions ruling to the evolution of unusual syndetic

Rare disease drug development could benefit substantially from increased patient engagement and input to enhance understanding of the key aspects of disease impact, ways to measure these impacts and patients' perspectives on the benefit-risk profile of potential therapies

 

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the spread of HIV from an HIV-infected woman to her child during pregnancy, childbirth (also called labour and delivery), or breastfeeding. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is also called perinatal transmission of HIV. Mother-to-child transmission is the most common way that children become infected with HIV. The HIV medicine reduces the risk of infection from any HIV that may have entered a baby’s body during childbirth.

 

Blood stream infections/ blood poisoning occurs when a bacterial infection elsewhere in the body such as in the lungs or skin which enters the blood stream. This is dangerous because the bacteria and their toxins can be carried through the blood stream to the entire body. It is a very serious condition that can lead to organ failure and even death. Blood poisoning requires immediate treatment. Unless it is treated quickly, the bacteria in the blood can cause sepsis. The symptoms of blood poisoning are similar to that of cold or of the flu.